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Updated 30 Aug 2012

Pre-flight Tests

Model Testing
Model Test program
Ground and Taxi Trials
Iroquois Engine Testing on a B-47 (coming soon)



Model Testing

During the design, development and construction of the Arrows, testing was carried out using models, wind tunnel testing, and using Nike rocket boosters. Over seventeen models which ranged in scale from 1/80 to 1/6 scale were tested from low speed to twice the speed of sound.

Wind tunnels used for testing were:
- the low speed wind tunnel at National Research Council (NRC) Ottawa, Ontario;
- high speed model testing at Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories, Buffalo New York;
- transonic and supersonic testing at National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Langley Field, Virginia; and;
- air intake tests at NACA Lewis Laboratories, Cleveland, Ohio.

Wind tunnel testing had their limitations, therefore AVRO fired free-flight models on Nike rocket boosters to simulate supersonic speeds at high altitudes. Nine (9) models were fired from Point Petre, near Belleville, Ontario and two (2) at the NACA range in Virginia. 

Average flight time of these models were just under 30 seconds. At 50,000 lbs of thrust, it took 3.2 seconds to reach Mach 1.7. There was only about 8 seconds of supersonic flight time and the models would drop into Lake Ontario about 5-6 miles out.

Over the years, searches have been made to locate and recover the models from Lake Ontario.
See Articles for news reports on the progress.



Model Testing Program

Wind Tunnel
Water Tunnel
Engine Duct Model
Free Flight Models
Antenna Research

Wind Tunnel
Model Purpose Facility
3/100 complete model Stability & Control
(Sub & Supersonic)
Cornell 3' x 4'
and 10' x 12'
4/100 complete model Stability & Control
(Sub & Supersonic)
Cornell 3' x 4'
and 10' x 12'
4/100 complete model Stability & Control
Armament Forces
(Sub & Supersonic)
Cornell 3' x 4'
1/10 & 1/8 Reflection Plane Icing Conditions
(Low Speed)
N.A.E. 10' x 5.7'
7/100 complete model Canopy & Missiles
Jettison, Ground Effects
(Low Speed)
N.A.E. 10' x 5.7'
1/80 complete model Stability & Control (Supersonic) N.A.E. 16' x 30'
1/40 Fuselage Intake Intake Flow (Supersonic) N.A.E. 10' x 10'
1/50 Reflection Plane Stability & Control (Supersonic) N.A.E. 16' x 30'
1/24 complete model Spin Characteristics (Subsonic) N.A.E. Spinning Tunnel
1/6 Fuselage Intake Intake Study
(Sub & Supersonic)
NACA Cleveland 8' x 6'
3/100 complete model Directional Stability
(Supersonic)
NACA Langley 4' x 4'
1/30 Canopy model Rake Survey (Subsonic) N.A.E. 10' x 10'
1/10 complete model Flutter (Low Speed) N.A.E. 10' x 5.7'
1/40 Reflection Plane Flutter (Transonic) M.I.T. 22' dia.
4/100 Fin Model Rudder Buzz (Supersonic) N.A.E. 16' x 30'
4/100 complete model Missile Trajectories, Canopy Hinge Moments and Stability Effects (Transonic) Cornell
Vane Full Size Functional Tests (Supersonic) N.A.E. 16' x 30'

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Water Tunnel
Model Purpose Facility
3/100 Canopy Model Visual Flow Checks N.A.E. 9.84' x 13.11'
Water Tunnel


Engine Duct Model
Model Purpose Facility
6/10 Duct Model Flow, Efficiency and Air Bleed Tests Orenda Test Cell


Free Flight Models
Model Purpose Facility
1/8 Scale Free Flight Models
(11 Models)
Drag and Stability (Supersonic) C.A.R.D.E. Range, Ontario (9) and
Langley Field Range, Virginia (2)


Antenna Research
Model Purpose Facility

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Ground and Taxi Trials

Engine run up trials were conducted in RL201, which was anchored to the ground with two long poles.  The two Pratt & Whitney J-75 engines produced 36,000 lbs of thrust with afterburners on!

Taxi trials began on 24 December 1957. Runway 32/14 was used for the first trials testing various speeds, braking, pars-braking and nose lifts. During taxi trials it was discovered that the brakes would heat up, transferring heat to the wheel hub and rim and eventually exploding the tire!  The brakes had another heat dissipating plate added. The para-brake functioned with the main wheel brakes so that the aircraft did not exceed heating limits of the brakes. Taxi trials were held at night, 


Iroquois Engine Testing on a B-47
(coming soon)



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